What are PPAs?
Using a Personal Package Archive (PPA), you can distribute software and updates directly to Ubuntu users. Create your source package, upload it and Launchpad will build binaries (.deb files) and then host them in your own apt repository.
- Software must be free according to Launchpad's licensing guidelines.
- Each PPA gets 2 GiB of disk space. If you need more space for a particular PPA, this can be arranged through Launchpad admins.
- You need to sign the Ubuntu Code of Conduct. (Instructions below.)
As Launchpad has a limited amount of package build machines, the build queue can at times be clogged, so it might take longer until your packages are built, but normally you can expect built packages within an hour.
Creating your PPA
Ubuntu uses Launchpad as the central development platform. Bug reports, translations, code, packages, everything happens in Launchpad. You need to sign up, which is very easy to do and just takes a few minutes. To create an account simply head to https://launchpad.net/+login
To use PPAs you will need to sign the Code of Conduct. This is the foundation document of the Ubuntu community. To us it's important that community members who offer software accept the same principles and share the same ethos and feeling for responsibility. To do this you will first have to set up a GPG key.
In standard Ubuntu, start the 'seahorse' program by hitting the Super key and searching for "Passwords and Encryption Keys".
- Step 1: Open Passwords and Encryption Keys.
- Step 2: Select File > New, select PGP Key and then follow the on-screen instructions. Now you'll see your new key listed in the Passwords and Encryption Keys tool.
- Step 3: Select the My Personal Keys tab, select your key.
- Step 4: Select Remote > Sync and Publish Keys from the menu. Choose the Sync button. (You may need to add hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com to your key servers if you are not using Ubuntu.)
- Step 5: Select the My Personal Keys tab, select your key and open the property window by pressing Space Bar or double clicking with your pointer. Select the Details tab of the property window.
- Step 6: Select the Fingerprint text (the ten blocks of numbers and letter). Copy the text by pressing the control+c keys together.
- Step 7: Visit your OpenPGP keys page.
- Step 8: Paste the fingerprint that you copied in step 3 into the Fingerprint text-box, then click the Import Key button. Launchpad will use the fingerprint to check the Ubuntu key server for your key and, if successful, send you an encrypted email asking you to confirm the key import.
- Step 9: Check the email account that Launchpad has sent the confirmation email to. If your email client supports OpenPGP encryption, it will prompt you for the password you chose for the key when GPG generated it. Enter the password, then click the link to confirm that the key is yours. (Launchpad encrypts the email, using your public key, so that it can be sure that the key is yours. If your email software doesn't support OpenPGP encryption (for Thunderbird, try the Enigmail extension), copy the encrypted email's contents, type gpg in your terminal, then paste the email contents into your terminal window, followed by ctrl-D (an EOF character). )
- Step 10: Back on the Launchpad website, use the Confirm button and Launchpad will complete the import of your OpenPGP key.
Then follow the on-screen instructions to sign the Code of Conduct.
Setting up your PPA
You have multiple options when setting up the PPA. First of all you can set up multiple PPAs. This makes sense if you have separate projects you maintain. As an app developer it makes sense to have a separate PPA for each app, so users can easily identify it. Secondly you can create a PPA for a user, but also for a team. This means that if you maintain an app as a team, you would likely want to set it up for the development team instead, so everybody on the team can access it. To create the PPA, simply head to either of the two:
- Personal PPA: https://launchpad.net/~/+activate-ppa
- Team PPA: https://launchpad.net/~TEAMNAME/+activate-ppa (be sure to replace TEAMNAME with the Launchpad ID of your team, or click on the "Create a new PPA" link on the team page). Note: You need to be owner (or admin) of the team.
Uploading packages to your PPA
To generate packages, you will need to install a few tools on your machine and configure a few things. This should just take a few minutes and is only required once. First install the necessary tools by running:
sudo apt-get install packaging-dev
Next edit your ~/.bashrc file and add something like the following in there:
export DEBFULLNAME="Bob Dobbs" export DEBEMAIL="firstname.lastname@example.org"
Then save the file and afterwards simply restart your terminal or run:
Releasing your app Once you're happy with your code and want to do a release, you document the changes in debian/changelog and give the release a version number. It is very important to document your change sufficiently so developers who look at the code in the future won’t have to guess what your reasoning was and what your assumptions were. Every Debian and Ubuntu package source includes debian/changelog, where changes of each uploaded package are tracked. The easiest way to update this is to run:
This will add a boilerplate changelog entry for you and launch an editor where you can fill in the blanks. An example of this could be:
superapp (1.4) precise; urgency=low * New release: + add Frobicator support. + document frobnication properly. -- Emma Adams <email@example.com> Sat, 17 Jul 2010 02:53:39 +0200
dch should fill out the first and last line of such a changelog entry for you already. Line 1 consists of the source package name, the version number, which Ubuntu release it is uploaded to, the urgency (which almost always is ‘low’). The last line always contains the name, email address and timestamp of the change. Every new release should have a new changelog entry and the version number should be higher than the one before. "dch -i" will automatically take care of you for this, but if you want a different version number, you can edit it manually as well.
In the bzr source branch run:
bzr bd -- -S -sa dput ppa:<Launchpad ID>/<PPA name>
Test building locally
In some cases it makes sense to test a build locally before uploading it to Launchpad. Especially if it's the first build you can easily verify if everything works according to plan. Luckily it's very easy to set up a build environment with pbuilder. pbuilder allows you to build packages locally on your machine. It serves a couple of purposes:
- The build will be done in a minimal and clean environment. This helps you make sure your builds succeed in a reproducible way, but without modifying your local system
- There is no need to install all necessary build dependencies locally
- You can set up multiple instances for various Ubuntu and Debian releases
Setting pbuilder up is very easy, run:
pbuilder-dist <release> create
where <release> is for example precise, quantal or raring or in the case of Debian maybe sid. This will take a while as it will download all the necessary packages for a “minimal installation”. These will be cached though. To build a test package with your changes, run these commands:
bzr bd -- -S -sa pbuilder-dist <release> build ../<package>_<version>.dscThis will create a source package from the branch contents and pbuilder-dist will build the package from source for whatever release you choose. Once the build succeeds, install the package from ~/pbuilder/<release>_result/ (using sudo dpkg -i<package>_<version>.deb). Then test to see if the bug is fixed.
Distributing the apps from your PPA
To get your app out to users, you can give them very easy instructions to install your app by adding the PPA. If your Launchpad ID is "bobdobbs" and your PPA name is "superedit", you could tell your users to simply:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bobdobbs/superedit && sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install <package name of your app>
Done. That's it.
The Ubuntu community provides you with a strong support network that can help you solve your development challenges. Join in and share your knowledge.
For the majority of apps, what we describe in this article should make things work for you and get your app out there. There are obviously more options around and if your project starts growing, you might want to have a look into alternatives or extensions. If you generally want to know more about packaging, we highly recommend the Ubuntu Development Guide.
This article refers to publishing third-party desktop applications packaged with the traditional .deb format.
Ubuntu is migrating to the new .snap format to easily and securely distribute apps.
If you are looking for information on how to publish an app for mobile or IoT devices, check out the current documentation instead ›